Climate Of India
While most of India is perennially warm because of its tropical southern exposure, the region nonetheless experiences great local diversity in conditions. The rainiest place on earth is reputed to be Mawsynram in the Garo Hills of Assam, where more than 17m of rain fall per annum (Mani 1974). In one exceptional year, some 22m of rain fell at Cherrapunji, in the Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya (Ibid).
Areas of high rainfall tendto be on the wind-ward side of mountain chains-as on the seaward side of the Western Ghats, or along the southern face of the Himalayas and their outliers. Drier conditions predominate in the interior, where over-passing air has already been robbed of moisture; this is especially so on the leeward side of mountain chains. Such rain shadow effects create the high deserts of central Tibet, hidden from the moisture-laden winds by the high Himalayan wall.
Today, four seasons are recognised in India. In many parts of India these seasons are marked by high temperatures in the driest periods, and highest rainfalls during the monsoon. Nonetheless, rainfull varies more strikingly with the seasons than does the monthly average temperature. The dominating annual factor in the weather cycle is the monsoon.